Pre-Solo Exam

Evektor SportStar MAX  (EVSS) Pre-Solo Exam N644SB

  1. What type of engine does the SportStar Max Have?

Rotax 912 ULS

  1. What is horsepower?

100 HP

  1. How many gallons of useful fuel?

32 Gal

  1. What type of oil should be used in this engine ­?

AeroShell Oilsport Plus 4  (other mineral or semi-synthetic oils can be used in an emergency but will require an oil change as soon as possible. Do not use full-synthetic oils) (multi grade oils should be used. SAE 15W-40 best overall)


  1. What type of coolent is in the SportStar?

Prestone DEX-COOL 50/50

  1. Define following speeds:

Vspeed                Sportstar

Vr=Rotate           55K (hold nose off and let it fly)

Vx=Best Angle   54K (52K @ 15 deg flap)

Vy=Best Rate     62K (55K @ 15 deg flap)

Best Glide            57K (59K @ 15 deg flap) (48K @ 50 deg flap)

Vnc = Never Exceed        146K

Vno= Max Cruise Normal Operations       103K

Va=Maneuvering Speed                                90K

Vfe=Max Flap Extension                                70K

Vso=Stall Landing Configuration                37K (50 deg flap)

Vs1=Stall (No Flaps)                                        44K

  1. Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Landing =18K (but don’t try it! 6K is safe)
  2. Clear 50 ft. obstacle on standard day on hard surface

T/O run                210 meters         229 Yrds               687 ft.

50 ft.                     490 meters         536 yrds               1608 ft.

  1. Why drain fuel from the fuel sumps?

Detect water and dirt in fuel (necessary before 1st flight of day and after refueling. Also in humid conditions or during/after rain or snow storm and extreme temperature change)

  1. What type and grade of fuel is used in the Sportstar?

100LL aviation fuel or 91 octane auto fuel (unleaded < 10% ethanol)

Fuel cost will be reimbursed up to $5.00 gal (no reimbursement for fuel truck premium)

  1. How to check oil level in the SportStar?

Remove oil can cover and dip stick. Then “burp engine” by turning engine over (in normal direction) by hand until burping sound is heard.  (only necessary on cold engine or first flight of the day). This will pump oil up into engine and oil can.

Then insert dip stick and check oil level. If it shows a need for oil (bottom of flat area on dip stick) only 3 oz of oil is required. DO NOT OVERFILL!

  1. Will engine run with master switch OFF?

Yes – Ignition SW and Master SW are SEPARATE.

  1. What is the maximum allowable flap setting for Take Offs?

15 deg = normal t/o

30 deg = short/soft field t/o

50 deg = extreme short/soft field t/o. (Airplane will lift off at a slower speed. After liftoff lower nose to gain airspeed of 59-65K then slowly reduce flaps to 15 deg and transition to climb)

  1. What documents and endorsements are required for a student pilot to solo?
  • Student pilot certificate
  • 3rd class medical (or driver’s license for Light Sport student.
  • Log book with solo endorsement for the cat, class, type of airplane being flown.
  1. Is log book required to be in possession when flying solo?

Yes – need endorsements

  1. What is the maximum magneto drop?

300 rpm max from 4000 rpm on each magneto and no more than 120 rpm difference

  1. Draw Diagram of runways @ DVGT and label each

.KVGT Airport Diagram

18. What is the landing distance over 50 ft. object at Full Gross Weight?

1290 ft.

19. Loss of engine procedures for SportStar:

  1. Airspeed 57K
  2. Choose landing area considering wind direction (don’t forget to look directly below)
  3. Turn toward landing area, trim, when established change fuel tank
  4. Turn fuel pump on
  5. Broadcast (last frequency)
  6. Before touch down and if you have time:
  • Fuel selector OFF
  • Ignition OFF
  • Master OFF
  • Airspeed 48K
  • Tighten shoulder straps

Engage Emergency Beacon

20. Maximum Gross weight of N644SB?

1320 Pounds

  1. Empty Weight of N644SB?

750 Pounds

  1. Useful Load in N644SB?

570 Pounds

  1. With full fuel how much weight can you carry in N644SB?

385 Pounds

  1. Describe electrical system in SportStar

12 Volt, dual Alternator

  1. What are the important squak codes?
  • 7500 = Hijacked (be careful and not put in by mistake)
  • 7600 = Communication failure
  • 7700 = Emergency
  • 1200 = VFR
  1. Name important light gun signals

                                    Movement                                         On Ground                                         In Flight

Steady Green                    Cleared to cross                Cleared for T/O                                 Cleared to Land

Flashing Green                  ——                                      Cleared to Taxi                                  Return to land

Flashing White                  Return to starting place

Steady Red                         Stop                                       Stop                                                       Continue Circling

Flashing Red                       Clear Runway                    Clear Taxiway                    DO NOT LAND

Flashing Red/Green        Caution

  1. What preflight actions are required before a flight not in the vicinity of an airport?
  • File a flight plan
  • Get weather briefing
  • Notify someone that can follow up if overdue
  1. What preflight actions are required before any flight.

Check weather, file flight plan, check notams, check restrictions

29. What are the minimum instruments required for VFR flight?

  • Airspeed indicator
  •  Altimeter
  • Compass
  • Engine RPM (Tachometer)
  • Fuel Gage
  • Oil Temp
  • Oil Pressure
  • Performance limitations
  • Weight & Balance
  • Airworthiness Certificate
  • Aircraft Registration
  • Pilot License (student, private, light sport)
  • Log Book Endorsements
  • Class B, C, D airspace – Two-way Radio communications
  • Class B, C-Transponder Mode C,(24 mo. Check)
  • Above 10K, Transponder Mode C (Private Pilot or better)
  • ELT – placarded,


  • Position Lights
  • Beacon
  • Power source
  • flashlight


  1. How many hours are required between consuming alcohol and flying?

8 hours

  1. What altitude should you fly when operating in level cruising flight at more than 3000 ft. AGL?

0/179 degrees magnetic – any odd thousand feet MSL plus 500 ft.

180/359 degrees magnetic – any even thousand feet plus 500 ft.

  1. Draw a runway and a traffic pattern and label each leg with the proper power setting, airspeed & configurations for SportStar MAX.



  1. What Direction is “Standard” traffic pattern?

Left hand turns.

  1. What are the traffic patterns for KVGT, KHND, OL7 (Jean)

KVGT “Standard”  all left hand standard traffic patterns for all runways

KHND “Standard” all Left Hand standard pattern for all runways

OL7 rwy 2L, 20R, 2R are all Right hand pattern and 20L is Left Hand pattern

  1. How do you enter and exit a traffic pattern at an uncontrolled airport?

You can enter many different ways but the preferred is the standard 45 deg entry into the downwind. If unfamiliar with the airport a good way is to overfly the airport above pattern altitude, then make turn to enter at 45 deg downwind. Exit can be straight out, crosswind 45 deg exit.

It’s helpful to other pilots if you state what your intentions are after takeoff. For example: “Henderson traffic, SportStar N644SB departing Runway Three-Five Left, to the west, Henderson” or “remaining in the pattern,” as the case may be. After takeoff, climb on the extended runway centerline to within 300 feet of pattern altitude. At this point, you can continue straight ahead or make a 45-degree turn to the left (to the right if the airport has a right-hand pattern).

If you will be departing to the right, wait until you are at least at pattern altitude plus 500 feet before making a right turn, and be sure to advise on the CTAF. “Boulder traffic, SportStar N644SB departing the pattern Runway Two-Seven, right turn, northbound, Boulder.”

Noise Note: Use the full length of the runway and climb at Vy to gain altitude as quickly as possible, unless an obstacle dictates the use of Vx. Upon reaching pattern altitude, reduce to climb power, or less if remaining in the pattern. This will help to decrease your noise footprint.

  1. List frequencies @ KVGT

DVGT Pattern Altitude 3000 MSL

ATIS                                                       118.05

Ground/Clearance Delivery         121.7

Tower                                                   121.7

CTAF                                                      125.7

Approach RY 30 (McCarran)         119.4

Departure RY 30, 12(McCarran) 119.4

Approach RY 12 (Nellis)                  118.125

WX-ASOS (Las Vegas)                     702-736-1416




  1. What is “Wake Turbulence” and how to avoid it?

Avoiding Wake Turbulence On Landing

When following a larger aircraft on final approach, the key points the FAA recommends to avoid wake turbulence are:

Stay at or above the larger aircraft’s final approach flight path.

Note the touchdown point, and land beyond it.

Here’s why. When an aircraft is flying, the wingtip vortices produced by the aircraft slowly descend behind the airplane. When the aircraft touches down, the vortices end. By flying your airplane above their flight path, and landing beyond their touchdown point, you’re almost guaranteed to avoid a wake turbulence encounter.

Avoiding Wake Turbulence On Takeoff

Avoiding wake turbulence on takeoff is a bit trickier, because larger aircraft often climb much faster than small GA airplanes. Here’s what the FAA has to say on avoiding wake turbulence on takeoff:

Rotate prior to the point at which the preceding aircraft rotated.

Maneuver your aircraft to avoid the flight path of the preceding aircraft.

Because vortex production starts when an aircraft takes off, it’s important for you to lift off prior to the point the previous aircraft did. However, after you’ve lifted off, problem #2 comes into play. Training airplanes don’t climb nearly as fast as commercial jets, so if you maintain the same heading as the aircraft in front of you, the potential to fly through their wake is high. By maneuvering left or right of the runway after takeoff, you can ensure you’ll stay clear of the vortices. So which direction should you turn?

Wind and Wake Turbulence On Takeoff

Wind is a key factor in avoiding wake turbulence because wingtip vortices drift with the wind, at same speed as the wind. The FAA states that “a wind speed of 10 knots causes the vortices to drift at about 1,000 feet in a minute in the wind direction.” Because of this, you should turn your aircraft in the upwind direction after takeoff, if possible. Unfortunately, you may not always be able to maneuver left or right after takeoff, especially at busy airports. The good news is there’s one final option: wait it out.

The Final Option – Wait It Out

Wake turbulence doesn’t last forever, and it begins dissipating as soon as it is produced by an airplane. The FAA says that “If a pilot is unsure of the other aircraft’s takeoff or landing point, approximately 3 minutes provides a margin of safety that allows wake turbulence dissipation.”

The next time you hear “caution – wake turbulence”, take a second to think through what you need to do, and you’ll keep yourself on upright and in smooth air.


  1. When required to wear safety belt, shoulder harness?

Aircraft Seat Belt Safety

All pilots are responsible for knowing the seat belt and shoulder harness requirements of the federal aviation regulations (FARs). Chances are that you will also be asked to demonstrate your knowledge of these rules, both on the written exam and during your private pilot checkride.

As a student pilot, you are responsible for compliance with these requirements only when you are pilot in command of a civil aircraft. When you are on a solo flight, you are acting as pilot in command and must comply with the requirements as they apply to yourself. During your checkride, you are also acting as pilot in command, and the flight examiner will want you to attend to these responsibilities as if he or she were a passenger. However, when you are receiving dual instruction from a CFI, the flight instructor is pilot in command and is responsible for compliance with these regulations. Still, it is good practice to make sure that seat belt and shoulder harness requirements are met for each flight.

The requirements are easiest to re-member if you recognize that they cover three distinct elements: briefing, notification, and use.


Under FAR 91.107(a), the pilot in command is responsible for ensuring “that each person on board the aircraft is briefed on how to fasten and unfasten that person’s safety belt and, if installed, shoulder harness.” This briefing must be given before takeoff. While it seems unnecessary, practically speaking, to brief a flight examiner during your checkride, you should nevertheless do so. The examiner wants to know that you will comply with the regulations when you have passengers.


In addition to the briefing, FAR 91.107(b) requires that the pilot in command ensure “that each person on board has been notified to fasten his or her safety belt and, if installed, his or her shoulder harness.” This must be done prior to taxi, takeoff, and landing. Note that while the briefing aspect of the regulations applies only to takeoffs, the notification responsibility applies to takeoffs, landings, and movement of the aircraft on the surface. Again, this notification requirement is your responsibility during a checkride, as pilot in command. It’s a good idea to get into the habit of asking your passengers to fasten their seat belts as part of your prelanding checklist.


In reviewing the use requirements, we must distinguish between crew-member use and passenger use. The regulation refers to “required flight crewmember” because it is designed to encompass multiple pilot crews. However, for small aircraft certificated for a single pilot, there is usually only one required flight crewmember-the pilot in command of the flight.

FAR 91.105(a) says that each required flight crewmember must keep his or her seat belt fastened during takeoff and landing, and while en route. FAR 91.105(b) says that during take-off and landing, the required flight crewmember must keep his or her shoulder harness fastened, if one is installed, while at the crewmember station, but need not keep it fastened while en route. There is an exception that might apply to the typical single-pilot, small aircraft operation. Because a shoulder harness may interfere with piloting duties, the regulations do not mandate that a required flight crewmember must fasten the shoulder harness if the pilot would be unable to perform required duties with the shoulder harness fastened.

For passengers, FAR 91.107(a) imposes similar use requirements with two exceptions. In addition to takeoffs and landings, passengers must use their seat belts and shoulder harnesses during taxi. However, passengers are not required to use seat belts or shoulder harnesses while en route, although it is probably a good idea for them to do so. (There are also exceptions in the regulations for children under two years of age who may be held in an adult’s lap, for children who are secured in an approved child restraint system, and for persons engaging in sport parachuting, who may use the floor as a seat but still need to be belted and harnessed.)

Note that the responsibility for passenger use is not imposed on the pilot. That is, while the pilot incommand must brief and notify the passengers on the proper use of seat belts and shoulder harnesses, that pilot is not required to ensure that the passengers use them.

Since briefing and notification on the use of seat belts and shoulder harnesses are requirements placed on you, as the pilot in command, it is probably a good idea to make them a part of your taxi, takeoff, and landing checklists. So, during your training, whether you are flying alone or with an instructor, get into the habit of performing these functions.

  1. What are minimum altitudes you can fly?

Watch Those Low-Flying Activities

Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 91.119, “Minimum Safe Altitudes,” sets out the requirements in terms of the area over which you are flying: anywhere, congested areas, and other than congested areas. The regulation also contains exceptions for low-altitude flight necessary for takeoff or landing, and when operating a helicopter.

Anywhere. There is no identified altitude in the regulation for when you’re flying “anywhere.” Rather, this altitude is dependent on the area that is being overflown. FAR 91.119(a) states that “no person may operate an aircraft below…an altitude allowing, if a power unit fails an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.” In other words, the pilot must fly high enough to be able to make an emergency landing, assuming an engine failed, without placing persons and property on the ground in “undue” jeopardy of harm. This is an overall minimum that supplements the more specific minimums for flying over congested and uncongested areas.

Congested areas. “Over any congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or over any open air assembly of persons, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of the aircraft.” The FAA does not define congested area in the FARs or in the Aeronautical Information Manual. And, FAA interpretations and decisions issued by the National Transportation Safety Board in low-flight enforcement cases are not consistent for purposes of drafting a precise definition. Such a determination is usually decided on a case-by-case basis, and in the cases that we’ve seen, “congested” has been interpreted rather broadly. For example, a highway with moderate traffic was found to be “congested,” as was a seaside area where 200 to 300 persons were sitting on the beach or bathing in the water.

Other than congested areas. In areas that are not considered congested but may otherwise contain some population, you must operate your aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet above the surface. Over open water or sparsely populated areas, you may operate your aircraft at any altitude but you must not operate closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure (including electrical or telephone wires). This 500-foot minimum distance requirement may be measured horizontally, vertically, or at an angle.

Helicopters. Helicopters “may be operated at less that the minimums prescribed…if the operation is conducted without hazard to persons or property on the surface. In addition, each person operating a helicopter shall comply with any routes or altitudes specifically prescribed for helicopters by the [FAA].” This part of the regulation was drafted so as to recognize the unique flight characteristics of helicopters and accommodate their special flight utility while maintaining a standard for safety.

Exception when necessary for takeoff or landing. The regulation allows you to operate your aircraft at altitudes lower than those prescribed in the regulation when it is “necessary” for takeoff or landing. The key to complying with this exception is determining what may be “necessary” for a takeoff or a landing, and the determination will be dependent on the circumstances of your flight. For example, it will be considered “necessary” for landing for you to fly below the minimum prescribed altitudes while executing a normal approach to an approved runway. But, it will probably not be considered “necessary” for landing to fly below those altitudes on approach to an unsuitable landing area, such as a taxiway, a closed runway, or a field too small to safely accommodate the landing of your aircraft.

These general regulatory requirements for the minimum altitudes that you must comply with were adopted for safety reasons, not for any noise concerns. Note that the altitude minimums are measured above the surface, not mean sea level, and in some circumstances the minimum prescribe altitude is determined by the height of a building or a tower or the location of a person or a vessel, rather than the height of the underlying surface. There are also specific regulations that identify minimum altitudes for particular areas, such as national parks and when conducting commercial air tours in Hawaii.

Low flight can be fun, but any flight close to the ground must be conducted in accordance with the rules and in a safe, prudent manner. After the September 11, 2001, tragedies and the resulting restrictions imposed by the federal government, pilots should be even more conservative in complying with these rules, to protect general aviation from unwarranted bad press and avoid receiving an aerial visit from an area air defense aircraft.

  1. List documents that must be aboard the aircraft at all times (ARROW)

Airworthiness Certificate


Radio Station License

Operating Limitations

Weight & Balance

  1. Who has the final authority and responsibility for the operation of the aircraft, both in the air and on the ground when you are flying solo?

You are the Pilot in Command (PIC) and you are responsible for all aspects of the aircraft.

  1. Can you operate in Class B airspace as a student pilot?

Must have received training and log book endorsement from your flight instructor.

  1. What are the minimum fuel requirements for VFR flight?

Daytime-First point of intended landing plus 30 min.

Nighttime-First point of intended landing plus 45 min.

  1. If the altimeter settings is not available at an airport, what setting should you use before departing on a local flight?

Set altimeter to the local airport altitude.

  1. What are the limitations of a student pilot, as stated in FAR 61.89?

It is easier to list the things a student pilot cannot do.

Cannot carry a passenger

Cannot carry property for compensation or hire

For compensation

In furtherance of a business

International flight (some exceptions)

Less than 3 statute miles visibility (daylight) 5 statute miles (at night)

Any limitations in the student’s log book

As a required flight crewmember

Sport Pilot Student

Aircraft other than a LSA

At night

Less than 10,000 MSL or 2,000 feet AGL, whichever is higher

Class B, C, D, airspace or airspace with control tower unless received ground and flight training specified in 61.94 and endorsement from authorized instructor.

Of a LSA without received the applicable ground and flight training and endorsements specified in 61.327 (a) and (b).

  1. What must you do before practicing maneuvers?

Clearing turns at least 90 deg. (left and right). Not really defined in the FAR’s but it will disqualify you in PTS. Start clearing turns to the left because any overtaking aircraft will be passing on the right.

  1. When practicing steep turns, stalls, and slow flight, the entry altitude must allow a recovery to be completed no lower than?

1500 ft AGL

  1. When two aircraft are converging head-on, which way do you turn to avoid the other aircraft?

To the right

  1. List reasons to initiate a go-around?

Airplane on runway or crossing runway

Airplane traffic

Animal or auto on runway

Unstable approach, x-winds, landing too long

Loose visual contact with airport

  1. Procedure for making a change in flight attitude

Climb to Cruise

Lower nose to gain AS and reducing power as cruise speed is obtained.

Level to Climb

Raise nose and as AS bleads off, add power to climb at Vy or cruise/Climb AS

  1. What is cruse/climb AS in SportStar MAX?

70 knots @ 5000 rpm

  1. Why do you not taxi N644SB for 20 seconds after power applied to Garmin GPS, ADI, and AP?

Must wait for internal gyros to sync and for AP to receive signal fro GPS

  1. Why has ADI not showing a heading upon taxi?

ADI requires GPS to detect a speed of 10 knots of speed to determine current heading.




Instructor _____________________________________


Student Signature____________________________________________

Date of Review______________________

Logbook Endorsement____________________________________________